Germany’s higher education institutions enjoy an excellent reputation. Teaching and research provide key impulses for innovation and progress. German universities combine research and studies and have been the scene for ground-breaking discoveries such as the printing press, computer and mp3 that have become an inseparable part of our modern lives.

The German doctorate enjoys an outstanding reputation in all disciplines. The number of foreign students registering themselves for a PhD has more than doubled in the last 12 years.

There are very good reasons for this. These include among others International Degree Programmes (IDP) taught in English medium, excellent quality of education, no tuition fees, promising career opportunities and above all the vibrant social and cultural milieu.

Vier Studierende sitzen vor dem Berliner Reichstag.PhD Proposal Writing Workshop (PPWW) are regularly offered by the DAAD

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Early Career Research Symposium

This symposium will offer a platform for early career researchers to showcase their work in the  subject of Resilient Societies.

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Where does research take place in Germany?

If you are contemplating pursuing a PhD in Germany, getting an insight into the research landscape of the country is of paramount importance.

Research is extensively carried out by and through universities, research organisations and the industry. These three are famously known as the three pillars of research in Germany.

You can take a closer look at this on Research in Germany.

Which universities should I look at for PhD?

There are various kinds of institutions of higher education in Germany. A majority of these belong to either of the following categories:

Universities (including Universities of Technology, abbr. TU) are research-oriented and offer a wide variety of subjects. These can award doctorate degrees.

Universities of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschulen, abbr. FH), on the other hand, are practice-oriented and offer courses mainly in engineering, business administration, social sciences and design. These have strong links to the industry and offer possibilities like joint supervision of the professor and a company for a master thesis, but do not award doctorate degrees.

Universities/Technical Universities are the only establishments that can award a PhD degree. In case you are carrying out your PhD at a research organisation, it will always be through a partner university that you will get your degree. Therefore it is important that you fulfill the eligibility criteria of the university as well.

How should I plan my doctorate?

If you have set your mind on a PhD in Germany, you can consider two approaches: the traditional approach i.e. individual doctorate and the structured doctoral programmes.
Individual doctoral studies involve identifying a supervisor (Doktorvater / Doktormutter) at a German University who is willing to guide your research. This system offers a lot of freedom, and calls for a great deal of personal initiative right from identifying a topic in your research field. This kind of doctorate takes about 3-5 years to complete.
Structured PhD programmes are internationally oriented, conducted largely in English and are comparable to PhD programmes offered in English-speaking countries. Here supervision is carried out by several university teachers. These programmes lead to a PhD in about three years.

Which is the best university in Germany?

Germany offers a multidimensional ranking , considering various criteria that are important from a student’s perspective. For example, student and staff judgments on quality of teaching, atmosphere at the university, library and other equipment, student numbers, average study duration, number of graduations, third party funding etc. You thus get a detailed picture of the strengths and weaknesses of each university on Here you can find your programme by selecting a subject, a university or even a city in Germany!

Am I eligible to apply for a PhD?

In Germany, every university is autonomous. This means that every university / study programme has its own set of criteria for admitting students. So please check the university website, and specifically the programme you are interested in to find out the exact admission requirements.

Some generalisation is however possible and one can say that as a Master degree holder from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal or Sri Lanka your degree is treated at par with a German Master degree. In some cases, further assessment of eligibility will be required. It is advised that you clarify the matter of eligibility with the university or the research organisation of your choice before you send in your application.

Some universities may ask for the proof of your English language proficiency in form of TOEFL or IELTS scores, while most universities will ask for very good German language skills in case you have to write your thesis in German. In such cases, your knowledge of German needs to be certified through examinations like the TestDaF or DSH.

How do I go about applying for a PhD?



Step 1
Decide which field of research you want to pursue and shortlist
potential universities and professors if you want to follow the traditional approach or the appropriate structured doctoral programme.
A good place to start for an excellent overview of the German research scenario is The following databases will bring you a step closer to your research destination:

Academicians from your country who have collaborations with German academicians or your seniors who might be carrying out research in Germany can be a great source of information too!

Step 2
I. Traditional Approach
  • Contact and convince a supervisor. Make sure that you approach a potential supervisor the right way and in good time – a brief and well-structured communication with an overview of your research proposal and relevant information about yourself is more likely to get you the right kind of response than a simple email stating that you are interested in doing a PhD!
  • Communicate information about your background, academic performance and academic goals.
  • Get a letter of acceptance from your supervisor.

II. Structured doctoral programme

  • Identify a programme. Contact the selected university. This will be your most important source of information as far as exact details about eligibility, programme structure, fee, application procedure etc. are concerned.
  • Check the application deadline for the programme chosen!
  • Application forms and other relevant material can be downloaded from the respective university website.
  • Send the application packet.
  • Get a confirmation of admission.
Step 3
  • The Admission procedures vary for different universities and for different programmes.
  • Check about these with the university of your choice or your supervisor.
  • Make sure you have a valid passport!
Step 4
  • Apply for a student visa as soon as you have the admission letter, as the procedure can take 8 to 12 weeks. The German Embassy and the Consulates require proof of funding for the first year of studies. To find out where you should apply for a visa, visit the website of the Germany Embassy in your country.
  • Apply for a place in a hostel. In some cases the International Office (Akademisches Auslandsamt) of the university will help you.
Step 5
  • Arrive in Germany at least a week before your course begins.
  • Contact the International Office (Akademisches Auslandsamt) of your university for guidance.
Step 6
  • Get your residence permit within the first three months of your stay in Germany from the Foreigners’ Registration Office (Auslaenderamt).

Do I need to know German?

As you have already seen, Germany offers numerous PhD programmes with English as the sole or primary medium of instruction and the language for your thesis.
But as a student in Germany, your life will not be limited to the university campus. You will surely want to interact with people, travel through the country-side and make the best of your time there. This is where knowledge of German will present a great advantage!

Universities offer beginner and well as advanced level courses where you can learn German. You can also start learning the language while you are still in your home country at a Goethe-Institut (Max Mueller Bhavan) / Goethe-Zentrum.

What kind of budget should I have in my mind?

As a PhD scholar in Germany, you are exempt from tuition fee, at least at public higher education institutions.
You will need to pay semester contribution of around Euro 300, depending upon the university and the services or benefits provided.

Apart from the tuition fees, if any, you will require about Euro 860 per month for subsistence i.e. housing, food, clothing, study material and other expenses such as health insurance and leisure activities. Here is a table that shows students’ monthly expenses. The amounts can vary from city to city, and of course from lifestyle to lifestyle!

Rent and utilities € 343
Food and Drink € 178
Clothing € 44
Learning Materials € 22
Car and Public Transportation € 94
Health Insurance, Medical Costs, Medicine € 80
Telephone, Internet, TV € 31
Recreation, Culture, Sports € 61
Total € 853


Rent and util­i­ties € 323
Food and Drink € 168
Cloth­ing € 42
Learn­ing Ma­te­ri­als € 20
Car and Pub­lic Trans­porta­tion € 94
Health In­sur­ance, Med­ical Costs, Med­i­cine € 80
Tele­phone, In­ter­net, TV € 31
Recre­ation, Cul­ture, Sports € 61
Total € 819

How can I finance my doctorate?

If you are participating in a structured doctoral programme and doing your doctorate at a graduate school, research centre or research training group, the issue of funding is usually resolved with you either working as a research assistant or receiving a scholarship of about Euro 1,000 per month.

If you are pursuing your doctorate on the basis of the traditional approach, you can apply for a job as a research assistant, if there is vacancy.
Working as a research/doctoral assistant involves collaboration in research/teaching and doing administrative work in addition to completing the dissertation. Non-university research institutions like Fraunhofer Institutes and also some companies offer doctoral candidates employment and / or fund their doctoral dissertations.

The DAAD offers the most extensive scholarship programme. Also a number of foundations support international candidates approved for the doctoral process. A database of scholarships offered by various German organizations can be found at

What is a DAAD PhD scholarship like and how can I apply for it?

Step 1
  • Collect general information about the DAAD PhD scholarship.
  • Thoroughly check the eligibility criteria.
  • Attend information sessions or internet-based seminars (webinars) organised by the DAAD.
Step 2
  • Once you have the letter of acceptance from your supervisor/admission letter from your university, complete the application procedure as specified in the scholarship announcement.
  • The application deadline typically falls in the month of October the current year for a PhD beginning in the next year. The exact date may vary depending upon your country of origin.
Step 3
  • Shortlisted applicants from India will be invited for a personal interview around January-February. For Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka the procedure will be announced closer to the date of interviews.
  • The final decision will be announced for applicants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka around March/April of the following year.
Step 4 Once selected, you will have to attend a mandatory German language course, which is a necessary and important part of your scholarship.
Step 5 After the successful completion of your language course in Germany, your PhD will begin in October.



Can I work in Germany – as a student and later as a professional?

As an international student, you are permitted to work for 120 full days or 240 half days in a year. This will help you in getting a bit of extra pocket-money!

After completing your degree in Germany, you can choose from amongst a wide range of options:

You can stay on in the country for up to 1.5 years to look for a job that is in keeping with your education. Once you find a job, the residence permit issued to you for the purpose of studying, can be converted into a residence permit for taking gainful employment.

Germany has always had a very strong industry-academia linkage. A lot of scientific research is funded by the industry as well. During your studies you can get the opportunity to do internships with German companies, which can open new vistas for your professional career.

In Germany, a doctorate is a prerequisite for a career in research or higher education. Your options include:

  • Teaching/Research Assistantships
  • Postdoc Positions
  • Research Positions in Industry

The portal has Germany’s biggest online job market for researchers.
There are also scholarships for Postdocs offered by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation and other organizations.

Where can I learn more about researchers' experience in Germany?

If you want to know more about universities and student life or read what other international students have to say about Germany, check out the DAAD Young Ambassadors page.